Karakoram Range (north and west of Everest) is a key climbing area during the summer with K2 the most challenging. The most important weather feature that one must get right is the monsoon moisture. Although Karakoram Range is far from the source of the monsoon (Bay of Bengal) there are periods when pulses of this moisture impact the Karakoram Range and the clouds and snowfall associated with this certainly cause issues climbing.
Other weather patterns? With the jet stream generally north of the region during the summer so winds usually are not an issue.